Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

What is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome?

Androgen insensitivity syndrome or AIS is a condition wherein an individual who is hereditarily male (with one X and one Y chromosome) is defiant to androgens or male hormones. Consequently, the individual has a number of or total physical attributes of a woman, regardless of possessing the genetic composition of a man.

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome pictures

A Person with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (Presence of Y chromosome, but Appears more of a Female)

Causes and Risk Factors

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is brought about by different chromosomal flaws specifically on the X chromosome that cause the body’s inability to react to the hormones accountable for the male form.

The syndrome is separated into two major types, the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or CAIS and the partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome inhibits penile formation and the development of other male body organs. The child will look like a girl at birth. 1 out of 20, 000 live births can have the complete form of the syndrome.

The amount of sexual uncertainty differs extensively in people with incomplete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Incomplete AIS can include other disorders such as the following:

Reifenstein syndrome

  • sometimes called as Gilbert-Dreyfus syndrome or Lubs syndrome
  • it is related with breast enlargement in men
  • also linked with unsuccessful descent of one or both testes in the direction of the scrotum following delivery
  • also related with hypospadias, a state wherein the urethral opening is on the bottom of the penis
  • infertile male syndrome brought about by androgen receptor disorder

Signs & Symptoms

The following are the signs and symptoms for individual who have complete androgen insensitivity syndrome:

  • look as if  a female
  • with no uterus
  • has very few armpit and pubic hair
  • at puberty, female secondary sex characteristics develop for instance breast development
  • menstruation and fertility do not occur

On the other hand individuals who have partial androgen insensitivity syndrome may have:

  • both male and female physical attributes
  • majority have incomplete closure of the exterior vaginal lips, an engorged clitoris, and an undersized vagina

Other manifestations include:

  • vagina with no cervix or uterus
  • Inguinal hernia together with a testis that can be sensed in a physical assessment
  • Normal female breast enlargement
  • Testes inside the abdomen or other strange body areas


Complete AIS is seldom confirmed in early days, except if a lump is sensed in the stomach or groin that happen to be a testis once it is open up by means of surgery. Majority with this problem are not identified until they become unsuccessful to have menstruation or have troubles becoming pregnant.

On the other hand in Incomplete AIS, it is usually confirmed during childhood due to the fact that the individual may possess both male and female physical attributes.

The diagnostic tests for androgen insensitivity syndrome may include

  • Blood tests to verify quantities of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Genetic testing
  • Pelvic ultrasound

Additional blood tests might be completed to assist and to differentiate Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and androgen deficiency.

Types of Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

1. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

It is a genetic disorder that causes XY fetuses to become impassive to androgens or male hormones. They are born appearing similar to normal girls on the outside even if they are genetically boys. Inside there is an undersized vagina with no uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries. There are testicles in the abdomen or the groin area. The complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is frequently confirmed at puberty when a girl is supposed to start menstruating but she does not.

 2. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

Partial androgen insensitivity characteristically leads in “confusing sexual organ.” The clitoris is enlarged or, otherwise, the penis is undersized and hypospadic. Partial androgen insensitivity may possibly be fairly frequent, and has been recommended as the reason for sterility in a lot of men whose sexual organs are of characteristically male form. People with confusing sexual organs have normally been subjected to surgery during infancy. Surgery on the sexual parts is necessary only when it is essential for the health of the child.

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Pictures

  1. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Showing Female External Reproductive organ


2. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Showing Vague Sexual Organ

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in Famous People (models)

Cindy Stone

Cindy Stone received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Education from Indiana University. She has been employed at her alma mater as a manager and teacher for the previous 26 years. Cindy was born appearing similar to other baby girls, and her condition was not completely identified until she was in her 30 years. She possesses the complete type of Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome that she inherited from her mother. Had she not happen to be curious on her own body at age 34 concerning her health needs, she may possibly will have gonadal cancer. She was uninformed that her physicians deceive her as a teenager keeping important data concerning her condition.

She has worked as a board constituent, webmaster and presides over the yearly assembly with the American support group for her condition. She frequently converse to students on her university and go to other universities surrounding the Midwest. She has worked as a guest presenter at symposiums and workshops for social workers, therapists, teachers and others enlightening them regarding gender matters and to finish needless aesthetic sexual surgeries on infants and children who are not capable to verbalize for themselves.

Cindy Stone pictures

Cindy Stone

Eden Atwood

Eden Atwood born in January 1969 is an American jazz singer. She was born with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. She is honest regarding her condition and gender topics, cooperating with nationwide associations and talking about her condition candidly on the Waves album. Eden resides in Missoula, Montana and has an adopted son with ex-husband Bruce Anderson. She at the present works as a music teacher too.

Eden Atwood images

Eden Atwood

14 thoughts on “Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

  • 09/02/2016 at 11:17 PM

    sir im also ais person. im in india tamilnadu bt i want to be a men. is it possible pls guide me im help less.

    • 12/12/2016 at 7:26 AM

      I don’t think it’s possible, honestly. If the tissues of your body truly don’t respond at all to androgens, even hormone therapy with testosterone would not work on you. Even if you had surgery to construct male genital organs and had your breasts removed, you still wouldn’t look like a man (again, you’re basically immune to the effects of testosterone).

      Sorry. :/

      • 25/04/2018 at 12:40 PM

        It is a medical condition. Study at medical school to know this.

  • 27/12/2016 at 1:43 AM

    I am a 50 year old female with cais you meet many females with the condition

    • 29/01/2017 at 2:02 AM

      So do I hope you coping

    • 02/10/2017 at 11:52 PM

      Hlo madam Venica. I’m dhana from India. I feel orientation in girls only and I want to be a male. Please 919842887280 contact me

  • 29/04/2017 at 12:13 AM

    i am suffering for pais i have no beard and mustache and some breast devlop like a female , i have removed brest with surgery, i have taken some hormonel treatment, but i have not get any result of this treatment. what should i do?
    my age 22

    • 02/10/2017 at 11:54 PM

      Hlo madam Venica. I’m dhana from India. I feel orientation in girls only and I want to be a male. Please 919842887280 contact me

  • 14/08/2017 at 2:33 PM

    Cais condition 50 year old female any contact numbers for me to speak to somebody with the same condition

  • 15/08/2017 at 1:24 PM

    You know many with the condition a i s

  • 17/09/2017 at 3:44 PM

    no many with the condition cais that I have I’m 50 year old married woman

  • 08/10/2017 at 1:52 PM

    Veronica Morrison meet many with the condition I have ais

  • 08/10/2017 at 1:54 PM

    What ages have you met people with the condition I have sis how do they cope

  • 19/11/2017 at 4:55 PM

    I am 24 . I am raied as a girl. I have perfect feminine features.I am an AIS . can I have sex with my partner ?


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